Jumat, 13 September 2013


Here are just a few examples of titles generated in ORBIS by a subject search with the keyword "Phonetics":

Approaches to phonological complexity / edited by François Pellegrino ... [et al.]. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, c2009. SML, Stacks, LC Classification, P128.C664 A77X 2009 (LC).

Culture and gender of voice pitch : a sociophonetic comparison of the Japanese and Americans / Ikuko Patricia Yuasa. London ; Oakville, CT : Equinox, 2008. SML, Stacks, LC Classification, P235.5 .Y83X 2008 (LC).

Introduction to phonetics and phonology / John Clark, Colin Yallop, and Janet Fletcher. Malden, MA : Blackwell Publishing, c2007. Bass Library, StaET

Minggu, 21 Juli 2013

Bedanya Kata Kerja Transitif dan Intransitif

Kata Kerja Transitif (kkt) adalah kata kerja yang memerlukan objek. 
Sedangkan Kata Kerja Intransitif (kki) adalah kata kerja yang tidak memerlukan objek. 
Kata Kerja Transitif jika ditambahi objek, akan semakin memperjelas maksud kalimat. 

Misalnya Somebody stole my wallet. 
Objek dalam kalimat tersebut (my wallet) semakin memperjelas apa yang dicuri oleh subjek. 
Bagaimana kalau tidak ditambahi objek? 

Kalimat tersebut tetap bermakna. Namun, kurang begitu jelas maknanya. Kata Kerja Intransitif tidak bisa ditambahi objek. 
Apabila ditambahi, kalimat menjadi janggal. 
Misalnya I walk. Kalimat tersebut sudah jelas. 
Kata kerja Walk tidak memerlukan objek. 

Berikut ini 10 contoh kata kerja transitif dan kata kerja intransitif Bahasa Inggris: 

  1. eat (kkt) 
  2. drink (kkt) 
  3. cut (kkt ride (kkt) 
  4. get (kkt) 
  5. walk (kki)
  6.  swim (kki) 
  7. dive (kki)
  8.  smile (kki)
  9.  stand (kki) 

Sabtu, 17 November 2012

Writing about Causes and Effects

When writing about causes and effects…

Thursday, February 19, 2009
We lead cause-effect lives. One person shops for a new compact car (effect) because he can't afford the gas-guzzler he now owns (cause). Another person finally fits into her new swimsuit (effect) because she's been careful about her diet (cause). Someone else has to deal with the neighbor's barking dog (cause), which has him considering downsizing to a condo (effect).
The workplace is no different. Almost every part of your business life evolves around causes and effects. It is, essentially, what makes things go. Sales are down; you explore the causes and effects and act accordingly. Corporate may add two trainees to your branch; you consider how this might affect daily operations, and so on.
In the same vein, a good deal of business writing involves the analysis of causes and effects, or stated in another way, the analysis of the logical relationships between events and results. Proposals, sales reports, and incident reports, among other forms of writing, are all grounded in causes and effects. Writing of this type often follows one of these patterns:
With this pattern, you focus more attention on the causes of a particular situation than on its effect(s).
The following incident report (partial) focuses on the cause of a recent plant accident and then expands to address the potential causes of additional accidents:
During a routine inspection, Gwen Vos found undercoater Bob Irving struggling to breathe while underneath a truck (effect). While spraying sealant, he accidentally rolled his dolly over his air hose, cutting off his air supply (cause). Vos immediately pulled Irving out, untangled him, and took these immediate steps.…
Presently, undercoaters maneuver under trucks and spray liquid- rubber sealant on the undercarriage while lying on their backs. Maintainer (the company) provides oxygen suits to protect the skin and supply oxygen. This accident shows that our safeguards are inadequate:
  • Ten-year-old oxygen-suit meters and air tubes frequently malfunction (potential cause).
  • Masks and hoses are beginning to crack (potential cause).
  • Lying on a dolly under a truck causes undercoaters to become tangled in cords and hoses (potential cause).
  • Spraying from a prone position allows liquid to drip on the sprayers' masks (potential cause).
With this pattern, you focus more attention on the effects than on the cause(s) of a situation.
The following technical report (partial) focuses on the effects of water quality on ultraviolet disinfection:
The quality of water treated with UV radiation (cause) can have a significant effect on an untraviolet unit's performance. First, suspended solids can shield bacteria from ultraviolet light and should be removed by pre-filtration (effect). Second, chemicals such as iron, manganese, and sulfides can lead to coating of the lamp/sleeve (effect). This coating, which blocks UV light, can be addressed with a UV monitor plus regular cleaning. Optical clarity below 254 nm interferes with how deeply UV light penetrates (effect).…
Cause and Effects Together
With this pattern, you discuss the causes and effects together. You might use this pattern if there were multiple causes of a situation, each one with a unique effect.
In the following application letter (partial), the applicant discusses various causes and effects in her earlier years that led to her interest in serving others:
I grew up in a small town called Bunde, Minnesota, a cohesive community of people who looked after one another. When a farmer named Leo Folken severly injured his arm in a corn-picking accident (cause), the community finished his harvest and cared for his livestock (effect). When my neighbor Jean O'Malley returned to Bunde after a difficult marriage (cause), the community adopted her and her infant son (effect). On countless other occasions, this community showed similar compassion for those in need (cause), which instilled in me the importance of serving others (effect).…
Remember: These are general patterns to consider rather than rigid forms to follow. More than anything else, they provide you with initial templates for your business writing when causes and effects are involved (which is more often than you think). How you eventually shape your writing, of course, will depend on your thinking about the subject, and the needs and nature of your reader.
—Dave Kemper

Cause and Effect Paragraphs

Sometimes, assigned topics on the written portion of the TOEFL ask you to explain the reasons or causes of something. Other topics will ask you to discuss the results or effects of some cause. Here is an example of a writing topic asking for causes of a particular phenomenon (Note: this is not an actual TOEFL topic, but it is similar to one that may appear on a specific adminstration of the TOEFL):
In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. Explain the causes of this phenomenon.Be sure to give specific details and reasons in your explanation.

Cause/effect paragraphs generally follow basic paragraph format. That is, they begin with a topic sentence and this sentence is followed by specific supporting details.   (Click here if you wish to review Lesson 1, "Basic Paragraph Structure.")   For example, if the topic sentence introduces an effect, the supporting sentences all describe causes. Here is an example:

      In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory laborers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theaters, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural communities.

Notice how each supporting sentence is a cause that explains the effect mentioned in the topic sentence. In the chart below are the main ideas of the above paragraph, to help you understand the relationships better:

(Topic Sentence)
(Supporting Sentences)
Cities have grown very large.
[There are several reasons for this.]
   Factory jobs attracted people.
(Cities have grown very large.)
   Better schools attracted families to move
   to the city.
(Cities have grown very large.)
   Places of leisure, entertainment, and culture
   made city life appear more interesting.

Notice also how the topic sentence is followed by the "focusing" or "prediction" sentence, There are several reasons for this. Such sentences help the reader anticipate the organization of the paragraph or essay.
sinceas a resultbecause of + noun phrase
becausethereforedue to + noun phrase
consequentlyfor this reasonso
There are two things you must be careful of when using these conjunctions. First, you must order the cause and the effect corerctly. For example, in the sentence

Sally closed the window because the weather outside was cold.

the CAUSE is the fact that the room was cold, and the EFFECT is Sally's closing the window. The conjunction because is placed in the correct position here, which is right before the cause. Similarly, in the sentence

Because the weather outside was cold, Sally closed the window.

the conjunction because is correctly placed before the part of the sentence that expresses the cause, even though the subordinate clause because the room was cold is now at the beginning of the sentence. (Note that the first letter of the conjunction is now capitalized.) However, in this sentence:

??The weather outside was cold because Sally closed the window.

even though it is grammatical, it does not make sense because a person's opening or closing a window does not influence the weather.

Second, you should be careful when using commas. Conjunctions such as therefore, consequently, as a result, and for this reason are usually followed by a comma, as in these examples:

The weather was cold;   therefore, Sally closed the window.The weather was cold.   Therefore, Sally put on her coat.
The weather was cold.   Consequently, Sally put on her scarf.
A blizzard hit the town.   As a result, the schools were closed.

The adverbial clause conjunctions since and because are exceptions. These are attached directly at the beginning of CAUSE-sentence without a comma, as in the example above,Because the weather outside was cold, Sally closed the window. The comma here is placed at the end of the subordinate clause.
The coordinating conjunction so is also different from the ones above. This conjunction has a comma before it, as in this sentence:

The weather was warm, so Jim turned on the air conditioner.

However, in formal academic writing, so may not be used at the beginning of a sentence (although you will often see it in informal writing):

The weather was warm.   So Jim turned on the air conditioner.
(too informal -- avoid this usage)

Sabtu, 05 Mei 2012


Yang terhormat Bapak Kepala Sekolah, Bapak dan Ibu Guru, serta teman-teman yang saya cintai.

Pertama-tama marilah kita panjatkan puji syukur ke hadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa karena atas segala rahmat-Nya pada hari ini kita dapat berkumpul bersama guna mengadakan acara perpisahan sekolah.

Para hadirin yang saya hormati, ijinkan saya mewakili teman-teman untuk menyampaikan sepatah dua patah kata dalam rangka perpisahan ini. Selama bersekolah, kami sebagai siswa sangat bangga dan berterima kasih dengan semua guru yang telah mengajar di sekolah ini, yang dengan sangat baik, tidak pernah pilih kasih dalam mendidik, sangat sabar dan tidak kenal lelah dalam membimbing kami.

Berkat jerih payah semua guru, kami dapat lulus dari SMA ini. Mudah-mudahan semua guru yang bertugas mengajar di sekolah ini dapat diberikan kesehatan dan diberi kebahagiaan selalu, Juga untuk teman-teman semua. Sungguh berat rasanya berpisah dengan kalian semua, karena kita sudah bersama-sama selama 3 tahun ini.

Tapi tetap saya juga mendoakan teman-teman semua dapat melanjutkan pendidikan yang lebih tinggi, dan dapat mencapai cita-cita yang selama ini diinginkan. Akhir kata, saya ingin mengucapkan sukses selalu buat teman-teman, doa saya menyertai teman-teman semua.

Dear Mr. Principal, Mr. and Mrs. Teacher, and friends that I love.

First of all let us pray toward praise gratitude to God Almighty for His grace over all onthis day we can gather together to hold a farewell ceremony school.
Ladies and Gentlemen, allow me to represent my friends to convey a few words in the context of this separation.
During school, we as students are very proud and grateful to all teachers who have taught at this school, which very well, never favoritism in educating, very patient and tireless in guiding us.
Thanks to the efforts of all teachers, we can graduate from high school. I hope all the teachers in charge of teaching in these schools can be given a health and happiness always.
Also to all my friends. Really it's hard to part with you all, because we have been together for 3 years.

But still I also pray for all my friends to continue higher education, and to achieve the ideals that had been in want,  Finally, I would say success is always my friends, my prayers be with all my friends.

Contoh Pidato Yang Bertema Pendidikan - Pidato Pendidikan

Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.
بِسْمِ الِ الرّحْمَنِ الرّحِيْمِ اَلَمْدُ لِلّهِ رَبّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ
وَالصّلَ ةُ وَالسّلَمُ عَلَى اَشْرَفِ اْلَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُرْسَلِيْنَ
وَعَلَى اَلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ اَجْمَعِيْنَ، اَمّابَعْدُ

Pertama-tama marilah kita sama-sama memanjatkan puji dan syukur kepada
Allah SWT, dimana pada hari ini kita semua masih diberi bebrapa kenikmatan, yang
sama sekali tidak bisa kita hitung, berapa kenikmatan yang Allah berikan kepada kita.
Shalawat dan salam semoga senantiasa tetap tercurahkan kepada Baginda Nabi besar
kita Muhammad SAW.

Bapak/Ibu guru yang saya hormati.
Rekan-rekan seperjuangan yang saya banggakan, dalam kesempatan yang baik
ini perkenankan saya untuk belajar berpidato dengan mengambil tema :


Bapak dan Ibu Guru yang saya hormati…..
Pendidikan adalah merupakan suatu kewajaran bagi kita semua baik itu
pendidikan jasmani, rohani, formal maupun nonformal, di sekolah ataupun di luar

Di jaman yang serba modern ini kita dituntut untuk terus berpacu menggali ilmu
pengetahuan, kalau kita lengah sedikit saja kita akan tertinggal jauh oleh teman-teman
kita yang terus berpacu menggali ilmu pengetahuan.

Rekan-rekan seperjuangan yang dimuliakan oleh Allah, kita semua telah sadar dan menyadari betapa pentingnya pendidikan, semenjak kita duduk di bangku sekolah dari TK, SD sampai sekarang kita akan meninggalkan bangku sekolah MTsN ini, banyak sekali ilmu yang kita dapatkan baik itu ilmu pengetahuan umum maupun ilmu agama, dari yang tidak tau kita bisa tahu, dari yang tidak mengerti kita bisa mengerti. Untuk itu dalam kesempatan yang baik ini perkenankan saya untuk menyampaikan ucapan rasa syukur kehadirat Allah SWT. Dan ucapan terima kasih yang tiada terhingga kepada Bapak dan Ibu Guru dimana beliau tidak ada bosan-bosannya untuk terus menerus mengingatkan kepada kita untuk rajin belajar dan belajar. Dengan dorongan itu Alhamdulillah kini kita memetik hasilnya.

Dengan selalu memohon ampun dan ridho-Nya semoga apa yang kita citacitakan
Allah SWT mengabulkannya. Amin ya Rabal Alamin.

Kiranya hanya itu yang bisa saya sampaikan pada kesempatan yang baik ini
mohon maaf atas segala kehilafan dan kekurangannya.

Wabillahitaufik Walhidayah
Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

Contoh Pidato Tentang Pendidikan

Contoh Teks | Naskah Pidato Tema Pendidkan di Indonesia dalam rangka memperingati hari pendidikan Nasional
Saudara-saudara sekalian !Yang saya hormati.Yang saya hormati Bapak/ibu Warga desa/kota/kab... pada hari ini, kita merayakan hari pendidikan Nasional, yang bertempat dilapangan ... pada tanggal 2 Mei 20... Dengan memperingati Pendidikan Nasional semoga kita lebih semangat dan bangkit untuk memajukan dan mencerdaskan pendidikan anak-anak bangsa agar berguna bagi bangsa, Negara dan Agama.Pertambahan anak umur sekolah yang cepat dan pertambahan lulusan tiap jenjang pendidikan yang besar, tapi tidak diikuti penambahan prasarana dan sarana pendidikan yang cepat dan memadai, menimbulkan masalah bagi pemerintah untuk memberikan “pendidikan dan pengajaran” pada semua warga Negara sebagaimana diamanatkan oleh undang- undang Dasar.

Persoalan ini krusial mengingat beragamanya geografis nusantara yang luas dan terpencar dengan tingkat perkembangan sosial-ekonomi-kultural berbeda. Dalam pembaruan pendidikan perhatian difokuskan pada upaya-upaya perbaikan dan peningkatan kualitas serta penataan kesempatan mendapat pendidikan. Mengenai yang terakhir ini sulitlah dicapai bila hanya melalui cara-cara konvesial yaitu memanfaatkan teknologi komunikasi dan teknologi ,informasi radio dan televisi. Pada tahun 20.. pemerintah telah menetapkan APBN untuk pendidikan sebesar 20% bagi SD, SLTP dan SLTA. Program dan kegiatan yang dilakukan tidak semata-mata atas dasar pertambahan jumlah gedung sekolah, guru, buku dan lain-lain. Alternatif yang didentifikasikan adalah :

1. Penambahan daya tampung SLP yang dilakukan baik dengan penambahan sekolah baru
2. Peningkatan daya tampung sekolah- sekolah swasta
3. Pengembangan sekolah terbuka dengan media korespodensi, modul, siaran radio, siaran televisi dan lain-lain
4. Pembukaan kursus- kursus ketrampilan praktis diluar sekolah sebagai jalur penyaluran kemasyarkat..

Ki Hajar Dewantara (1889-1959) seorang tokoh pendidikan Indonesia yang memprokarsai berdirinya lembaga pendidikan Taman siswa. Dia lebih terkenal dengan filsafat” tut wuri handayani, hing madya mangun karsa, hing ngarso sung tulada. Dewantara mengklasifikasikan tujuan pandidikan dengan istilah “ tri-nga”(tiga “nga-nga adalah huruf terakhir dalam abjad jawa ajisak). “Nga” pertama adalah ngerti” (memahami /aspek intelektual). “Nga kedua” adalah “ngrasa” adalah (merasakan aspek afeksi), dan “nga” ketiga adalah “nglakonin” (mengajarkan atau aspek psikomotorik). Merumuskan tujuan pendidikan yang meliputi aspek kognitif, afektif, dan psikomotor. Menurut Dewantara, adalah hak tiap orang untuk mengatur diri sendiri, oleh karena itu pengajaran harus mendidik anak menjadi manusia yang merdeka batin, pikiran, dan tenaga. Pengajaran jangan terlampau mengutamakan kecerdasan pikiran karena hal itu dapat memisahkan orang tepelajar dengan rakyat.Akhir sampai disini, semoga bangsa Indonesia lebih meningkatkan dan mencerdaskan serta menciptakan anak-anak didik yang produktif, kreatif, dan inovatif yang berguna bagi bangsa dan Negara, Menciptakan sumberdaya manusia yang berkualitas dan mandiri yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan global.

Saudara-saudara sekalian !Yang saya hormati, terimakasih atas semua perhatiannya...
Wss.. Wr. Wb.